Buckling or "Tenting" of Flooring

Wood Flooring Problems

DonanEngineering Articles, Forensic Engineering, Structural Damage & Collapse

Cupping, buckling, and crowning are three common problems encountered in wood flooring (flooring).  These problems are caused by a combination of the normal material characteristics of the flooring and improper installation of the flooring. Flooring expands when its moisture content increases and contracts when its moisture content decreases.  Flooring also expands when its temperature increases and contracts when its temperature …

86a-3-tab fiberglass-mat asphalt shingle, intentional coining 2  Warren

Tips for Identifying Intentional Roof Damage

DonanEngineering Commercial & Residential Roofing, Forensic Engineer, Forensic Engineering, Hail and Wind, Registered Roofing Consultant, Roofing Investigations

Part 1: Suspicious Damage Patterns Not Caused by Hail An important tip for identifying intentional roof damage, which is made to mimic hail damage to a shingled roof, is to observe the locations and patterns of the damage.  The patterns can be observed by circling each damaged location and then connecting the locations together with chalk lines. The location of …

Photograph 1: Hail impacts cause blemishes that vary in size, shape, and characteristics.

Tips for Identifying Intentional Roof Damage – Part 2

DonanEngineering Articles, Commercial & Residential Roofing, Forensic Engineer, Forensic Engineering, Hail and Wind, Registered Roofing Consultant, Roofing Investigations

Part 2: Suspicious Damage Characteristics Not Caused by Hail An important tip for identifying intentional roof damage, which is made to mimic hail damage to a shingled roof, is to observe the characteristics of individual blemishes on the roof.  Examining close-ups of high resolution digital images is a useful method of determining whether a blemish was caused by hail, or …